Saturday, January 16, 2010

The study revealed, three major elements help student learn i.e. the teaching methodology, location of technical subject and evolutional modal adopted. It is recommended that Kaduna state government should increase practical skill development in school. The knowledge and ability of teaching staff/instructors should also be improved. The ability, to arouse curiosity and make learning environments stimulating help encourage students’ interest in technical subjects

                                         A Research Study Presented In Partial Fulfilment of The Award Of
                                           Master in Education (M. Educ.) in Industrial Technical Education 
                                                 To Department of Vocational Teacher Education,
                                                                Faculty Of Education,
                                                          School Of Post Graduate Studies,
                                                                 University of Nigeria,

                                                                            MAY 2004

This project has been approved for the Department of Vocational Teacher Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
PROF. O. M. Okoro
SUPERVISOR                                                                                     HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
EXTERNAL EXAMINER                                                                  DEAN OF THE FACULTY
                                    ….DEAN OF POST GRADUATE SCHOOL


Ma’aJI Caleb Zonkwa, postgraduate student in the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, with registration PG/MED/02/ has satisfactorily completed the requirements for course work and research work for the degree of Masters in Industrial Technical Education. The work contained in this project is original and has not been submitted in part or full for any other Diploma or Degree of this or any other university.

STUDENT                                                                                   SUPERVISOR

This project is dedicated to my late father Ma’aji B. Neyu and my entire family.
I owe deep gratitude to so many people for their help towards the completion of this work. In particular; A. N. Bala the Director, Inspectorate Division of the Ministry of Education, Zonkwa and also the entire staff of the Inspectorate Divisions of Kaduna state Ministry of Education, and to my supervisor, Prof. O. M.Okoro, who un-tiredly assisted me and had faith on me to carryout the project. To the other staff of the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria Nsukka for their co-operative and constructive criticism and good knowledge on the development of vocational education programme.

My thanks equally go to my wife Mrs Mary .M. Caleb for her devotion in the course of my international activities and studies at the University. In addition, I thank the International Bureau of Education, Geneva, for their interest in my studies and providing some useful materials for my use.

TABLE OF CONTENT               page

 Background of the study………....1
Statement of the problem………....3
Purpose of the study………….......4
Research Questions………………4
Significance of the study…………..6
Definition of terms………………...7

Introduction of Vocational Education in Nigeria…10
Social (culture Wars) and Modal Development Decisions for Vocational Education..13
Problems Associated with Teaching of Vocational [Technical] Subjects…….14
Schools, Teachers and Society……….14
Financing Vocational Technical Education...........16
Equipment and Space…………………18
Training of Vocational Technical Teachers...............19
Evaluation of Vocational (Technical) Education........22
Summary of review of Literature…….25

Design of Study…26
Area of Study…..27
Population of the Study.28
Sample and Sampling Technique.29
Instrument for Data Collection...29
Validation of the Instrument.30
Reliability of Instrument .30
Administration of the Instrument.............31
Method of Data Analysis…31
Decision rule …32
Testing of Hypothesis.........54
Summary of Findings 59
Discussions of Findings.63
Re-statement of the Problems….69
Summary of Procedure Use...….70
Principal Findings……………...71
Implication of the Study……….73
Suggestions for Further Research.75

Appendix A. Letter To The Honourable Commissioner Ministry Of Education, Kaduna State. 81
Appendix B. Letter Of Ientroduction…82
Appendix C. Questionnaire………….84
Appendix D. BORISHADE/ATIKU Press Release On Technical Education….90
Appendix E.ASUU (2002) Communiqué....91
Appendix F. ASUU (2003) Press Conference……92
Appendix G. Theories of Principles of Vocational Education……….....94
Appendix H. Statistical Formulae And Calculations For Testing Of  Hypotheses Developed…95
Appendix I. Multiple Regressions On Calculated Prediction On Data..99
Appendix J. Acceptances View Graphical Resonated: Of 110, Respondent On Districts Allocation
                    System For Technical Education In Secondary Schools …101
Appendix H. The Whole 110 respondent on Likert scale on Methodology Allocation and Evaluation,
                       to be Adopted………………...…....102.

 Table                                                                 Page
1. Government secondary schools in Kaduna state as at 2001.and economic activities within each
 2. Population of the study………………..28
3. Commonly vocational subjects taught…....34
4. Vocational teachers’ availability…….......35
5. Teachers Industrial experience….35
6. Schools’ workshop/laboratory availability….36
7. Industrial visits by students...…36
8. Availability of organization/industry at 50 km radius........36
9. Related science core subjects in secondary schools to vocational education……..38
10 School Administrators Mean Rating of Teaching Methodology to be adopted for vocational
       education (ve)……… ...……40
11 School Administrators Mean Acceptances of District Allocation systems for effective performances
       in Vocational [Technical] Education (VE)…..………42
12 School Administrators Mean rating of Evaluation Modal in vocational Technical education (VE)
13 Vocational Teachers Mean Rating of Teaching Methodology to be adopted for vocational education…....………….47
14. Vocational Teachers Mean Acceptance of District Allocation  systems for effective performances
        in Vocational [Technical] Education (VE)…………49
15. Vocational Teachers Mean rating of Evaluation Modal in Vocational Technical Education (VE)
16. Chi-square table of school Administrators and vocational Teachers on vocational activities provided
         in secondary schools……………………………………..…...54
17.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the Mean Rating of schools Administrators and vocational
    Teachers on teaching methodology to be adopted for vocational technical  education 
     (ve). ……………….……56
18. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the Mean Rating of school Administrators with vocational
       Teachers on District Allocation systems for effective performance, in vocation [Technical]
19. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the Mean Rating of School Administrators (with vocational
       Teachers on evaluation modal in vocational Technical education……………....…58
20 Summary of ANOVA of Responses by Schools Administrators and Vocational Teachers regarding
     Their Perception of Expected Guidelines for the Implementation of Vocational Technical Education
       in Secondary Schools…….59

LIST OF GRAPHS                                                        Pages
Graph: 1. Resonated Presentation of the commonly vocational subjects taught in
                Secondary Schools……...……………35
Graph: 2. Graphical resonated: of respondent on activities of vocational education at secondary
                 schools in items 4>8………….………37
Graph: 3. Graphical resonated: of respondent on Related core subjectsto vocational education at
                secondary schools in item 8 ………39
Graph 4: Graphical representation of Cluster Mean Rating forTeaching Methodology by
               school Administrators………..41
Graph 5: Graphical representation of Cluster Mean Rating for District allocation systems by
                school Administrators……….44
Graph 6: Graphical representation of Cluster Mean Rating for Evaluation modal by
                 school Administrators……...…..…...46
Graph 7: Graphical representation of Cluster Mean Rating for Teaching Methodology by
                 school    Administrators……...…49
Graph 8: Graphical representation of Cluster Mean Rating for District allocation systems by
               vocational Teachers.……….....51
Graph 9: Graphical representation of Cluster Mean Rating for Evaluation modal by
                 vocational Teachers………...…53
Graph 10: Graphical resonated of 110 respondents on District Allocation System for technical
                 education in secondary Schools………….100
Graph 11: Whole 110 respondents on Likert scale on Methodology, Allocation and Evaluation,
                  to be Adopted……….101


This is a study of the principles and guidelines that should be adopted in implementing technical education in Kaduna state. To carry out the study, four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated. To collect relevant data from the target population, Questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was administered through research assistance in 12 inspectorate divisions. The population made up of 44 School Administrators and 66 vocational Teachers randomly selected. Percentages, Mean and Standard Deviation were used to answer research questions. While Chi-Square and ANOVA statistics were employed to test the null hypothesis at 0.5, level of significant. The choice of inclusion of graphical statistical operations is to avoid the overlooking of some important findings by the reader. A correlation of Principals data (that are non vocational teachers) to the five groups of vocational teachers yielded a positive correlation of +0.957. This shows the acceptability of the suggested reform in the secondary schools if implemented. The study revealed, three major elements help student learn i.e. the teaching methodology, location of technical subject and evolutional modal adopted. It is recommended that Kaduna state government should increase practical skill development in school. The knowledge and ability of teaching staff/instructors should also be improved. The ability, to arouse curiosity and make learning environments stimulating help encourage students’ interest in technical subjects.


Background of the Study
Today Europe is a force to reckon with because of the great attention it gave to science and technology education. Historical evidence has proved, science and technology is not static as it responds to changes which societies are subjected to daily.

Most Nigerian scholars according to Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN 1992) hold the static view of science. To the Scholars, science is a body of knowledge accumulated from distant past. Technology today is defined as the rational utilization of energy and process designed to satisfy needs. Thus, Technology is thought of as “know – how?” while science is seen as “know – why?” However, the science policy (1986) defined science: -
(a) Science is a process which produces and accumulated knowledge.
(b) Technology as process which provides services and goods.

Nigeria Secondary School curricula in Science and Technology are drawn to be taught and evaluated using the Criterion – Reference (a standard for judging performances). This learning processes using the Criterion-Reference system is observed to be deficient also it is not the specific measures used on (the adolescent’s student) accomplishment of curriculum goals and objectives in science and technology for the need of society in secondary schools.

Teaching vocational technical education leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills improvements in productivity as well as basic scientific knowledge. Therefore, its teaching activity requires trained professionals: -
‘a’ to teach,
‘b’ to guide student in their learning activities,
‘c’ to assess their learning outcomes.

According to Okoro (2000), many students leave school ill - prepared for the challenges of work and adulthood. They are unready and unmotivated to carry on learning through out their lives. Therefore, development of better, stimulating teaching methods should be a continuous process in the education sector. In addition, there is the need, in the new millennium, to provide adolescents with access to proper functional secondary education.

Kaduna State ministry of education has suffered many years of funding/financial cutbacks leading to teaching situation where facilities and motivations for improvement in vocational education at secondary school level are lacking. In effect, upsurge in factors and practices that have seriously endangered the stability and technical education credibility.

It is with the views mentioned above that the present studies on development of principles and guidelines for the implementation of vocational technical education in Kaduna State of Nigeria is being undertaken for revival, repositioning and refocusing of the education sector of Kaduna state.

Statement of the Problem.
The Weekly Trust Newspaper (2002) has stated that, Universities – Federal and State, are handicapped, and as such they cannot fulfilled their mandate to teach, research and produce knowledgeable citizenry for national development.

Students’ from secondary schools are ill-prepare for the challenges of work: lacking the will of learning through out their lives. Therefore, there is the need to look for better ways of teaching and implementation of vocational education in Nigeria in order to develop students’ interest to the challenges of work and learning through out their lives.
As such, implementation and teaching principle of vocational technical subjects at secondary school, has critically deteriorated and there is the need to develop a better teaching and appropriate evaluation system in order to prepare the adolescents for the challenge of work and adulthood.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to develop strategies for improving the teaching of vocational technical subjects in secondary schools in Kaduna state. The specific objectives of the study are to: -
1. Identify how the learning activities in vocational subjects in secondary schools can be improved.
2. Determine the appropriate teaching methods for vocational technical subjects for adaptation in secondary schools.
3. Determine necessary systems for effective performance in Technical Education at secondary schools.
4. Ascertain the appropriate evaluation methods be adopted in technical subjects.

Research Questions
1. How do the learning activities of Vocational Education in secondary school reflect the principles of vocational education?
2. Which teaching methods are ideal for vocational technical education in secondary schools?
3. Which type of district allocation system for technical education is required for effective students’ performances in secondary schools?
4. What appropriate evaluation methods may be adopted in technical education in secondary schools?
The following null hypotheses were developed and tested at 0.05 level of significant

H01                     There will be no significant differences between the responses of school
                            Administrators and Vocational Teachers regarding how vocational education
                             implementation at secondary school reflects the basic principles of vocational education.
H02                     There will be no significant difference between the responses of school administrator
                            and those of vocational teachers regarding the teaching methods that are ideal for
                           vocational technical education in secondary schools.

H03                     School Administrators and Vocational Teachers do not differ significantly in
                            their mean acceptance of district allocation system of technical education in
                            secondary schools.
H04                     The appropriate evaluation methods for technical education at secondary schools
                            are not a source of significant deference between School Administrators and Vocational

Significance of the study

Since vocational education brings about a roller – sharp changes, both for the individual and for any sovereign nation economically, the position of vocational education programme in any state of Nigeria therefore becomes of paramount importance to its citizens. Technical education, which focuses on (independences pursuits in training of) competency and manipulative industrial skill: have to be intense, well handled by the Nigerian citizens and government, in the educational policies.

The Country (Nigeria) will also benefit from this study as it will lead to the banishment of ignorance and prejudice. This study will also reveal the correct principles for the proper implementation of vocational technical education at secondary school. It is for this reasons that the study of Kaduna state aimed at contributing in the need for improving the state of vocational technical education in contents, teachers, daily life in secondary schools and national co-operation.

The finding and recommendation of the study will be useful to Principals, Teachers and Educational Administrators in Kaduna State to sit up to their responsibilities; so that student will acquire the appropriate manipulative skills in vocational education and competitive capabilities for continuing learning throughout their lives and be responsible citizen.

Definition of Terms
Development ≡ the process of bringing out; what is dormant.
Principles ≡ High-grade regulation, on which a lot depend; which may be
                   based on description of ideal situations.
Guidelines ≡ Effective technical education practices which includes:
                    Parent involvement, Aligned time on task, Direct teaching,
                    Tutoring, Cooperative learning, and Adaptive Education..
Technical ≡ A form Vocational Elective (non-compulsory) at Senior
                    Secondary School. These could be of Applied Electricity, Automobile
                    Mechanic, Building Construction, Electronics, Metal Work, and
                    Wood Work options ↔ [Industrial Technical].



The introduction of the National Policy on Education (NPE) is in response to the Nigeria government view of the need for meaningful functional education (NPE 1998 item 7d & NPE 1973, item 5.4). The observed weaknesses that affected the proper implementation of functional education mentioned in the NPE, have denied the Nigerian society the unity and harmony in achieving the independent industrial capabilities today (Nigeria National constitution 1999; NPE 1998 item 41 & 111).

In 1985 a decree on “National Minimum Standard and Establishment of Institution” was promulgated so as to put in check erring institutions (both Public and Private) that do not conform to standard. Thus, the re-emphasis on Technical Education purposes with inclusion of ‘compulsory supervised industrial attachment as part of a regular studies was made’ (Decree 16 of 1985 item 9.2). Today, Osuji (2003) (the present Minister of Education) is “calling on the country’s development partners in education to channel greater part of their resources toward technical and vocational education”.

Technical Education had been appearing as a section of its own in the NPE’s (1985, 1977, 1973) until that of 1998 it is recognize as an aspect of Vocational Education. However, this Vocational Education is now offered in five different types of institutions including the Nigerian universities. The types of institution as stated in the National Policy on Education (1998) are

1. Pre-vocational at junior secondary school
2. Vocational Schools at post-primary School
3. Technical Colleges at post-primary/secondary levels
4. Technical Teachers Colleges at post-secondary level
5. Polytechnics

This is because; today the Nigerian scholars and industrialists have accepted that Vocational Education provides the impetus for technological development, trade expansion, foreign exchange generation and basis for putting the nation on the map of industrialization (Okorie 2000; Okoro 1999). It therefore follows that for any development of vocational technical education system (in order) to be functional (utilitarian): all the theoretical principles and guidelines required in implementation (as in appendix G in page 93) need to be in place at secondary school. In effect, the related literature has been reviewed under the following sub-headings-
1. Introduction of Vocational Education in Nigeria
2. Problems Associated with Teaching of Vocational [Technical] subjects.
3. Financing Vocational (Technical) Education
4. Training of Vocational Technical Teachers
5. Evaluation of Vocational Technical Education.
6. Summary of Review of Literature.


Since independence, vocational education has been beseted with numerous problems, (and never saw proper footing) as written by Davidson (1964, 1967:205-8) and Gunthel (1954:725-6). This is in respect of the type of Europeans who opened up the West Coast (West Africa) that were mostly ‘gin and slavery, school ruffians and adventurers, in which Oke (1990.5) with Wale (1962.71) supported. Inference on such Europeans is that of no meaningful reform on educational matters. On this Wilson (1971:131) States that, “the British spent very little money on education in the early years of colonial rule” Onyewuenyi (1987: 7) with Asiwaju and Crowther (1978: 1-19) indicated also the Europeans, were mainly for, to administer or to exploit but not to stay (or to offer any reasonable solution to the people in solving problems). Other philosophical orientation [deduce from texts]: these Europeans had been driven by over-zealousness in patriotism; did misunderstand the process of governance of the people of Nigeria; their justification of civilization were noted to (rather) lack in proper guidance of the local on the path to social and individual security instead they psychologically bring the people down.
Experience in putting theoretical knowledge into practice demand more time, energy and discipline that most Nigerians can afford: Therefore, they walk into safe jobs that devote on their profession. The time the British Government realized that they needed [Technically] trained Nigerians: this to run/manipulate machineries that was purely for the imperial economical endeavour; Britain re-looks outward; even though, by 1700s Nigerian students, mostly Mulatto, [children with white and black parent] accepted in London for Education wrote Gunthel. In effect, its educational policy of assistance to its colonies was re-bricking by sending again some Nigerian students to England for training. By and by, Ladipo (1985:231 - 45) informed us about the subsequent British foreign policy and educational reforms from 1861-1950. These reforms according to Ladipo saw research station and institutions in Nigeria: with institutional development in science and technology by Sir, Claude Macdonald in Lagos in 1893 setting up a botanical research station (leading to the establishment of Animal Husbandry in Vom Plateau state in 1920). Today in the present 21st century [i.e. since Macdonal effort 110 years ago]: it is hard to get committed Nigerians (in the science and technology education) because many of us in this country have underrated our civic teaching responsibilities to our government and motherland in particular

These plans by Macdonald on institutional development (like the Southern Department of Agriculture in 1899 and the Northern Department of Agriculture in 1912 at Samaru) failed to put-up the background for this important and profitable education. Because the research activities were started with major emphasis on export crops while work on food crops and maintenance of soil fertility was of secondary importance (Ladipo 1985:231 – 2). This had deprived the research its vocational consequences and us Nigerians with early interaction with science education. France encountered a similar problem in her colonies as stated by Watson (1981) Peacock (1980) Graig (1966): to address these problems France introduced curricular [which was earlier bookish in her colonies and were not suited to the need of local populace] to meet the need of local educational policy. Watson and Peacock stated that paradoxically (situation displaying contradictory future): When the British and French Empires were restless, new foreign policies were in emergence. A keen competition led to new foreign educational policies and reform in West African colonies – both in governmental activities and religious nationalism, (Smarth 1984; Easton 1966; Oke 1936 and Stock 1899. The reforms saw the teaching of vocational technical subjects in schools like Bonny Boys High School, in 1900; Hope Wadle Training institute, Calabar as well as Nasarawa School in 1909, (Okorie 2001). Eventually, the Yaba Higher College (now Yaba College of Technology) by the British Government in 1934 established for Technical Training. Ma’aji (1984) noted that, the Technical Training (teaching) presumed and promoted conformity; learning which had little to do with equipping pupils to lead a fuller life but conformist on a narrow sense. For example, in 1913 the two boarding schools at Warri and Bonny according to Kirk – Greene (1970:1968) had 151 adult ‘apprentices’ and 187 boys (these adults were associated with small boys with bad result for tutoring).

Be that as it may, we cannot escape the conclusion, that the real power for survival ( of any, given social group Nigeria with its attendant culture pattern-with almost 400 tribes as stated by Buhari, 2003:7) is the discipline with which individual members set about the job of corporate living. In addition, the intelligence they bring to bear on the solution of immediate problems as mentioned by Okorie (2001) Okoro (2000) and Grace (1994) supporting Ma’aji (1997) for co-operative learning. The systematic presentations of Okorie, Okoro and Grace in their text in respect of the topic, point conclusively, that “the training of our adolescent in work experience should not be compromise” if we want to be self-sufficient and viable country.

These observations in the 1998 National Policy on Education did not properly reflect the position of Vocational Education (e.g. item 42, which state, “Each state and local government, in cooperation with appropriate agencies, shall organize relevant apprenticeship training scheme”.

1. Which agency is appropriate at secondary school level for technical education?
2. How many public servants at state and local government level know what it is required for this cost effective education?

As it is observed, vocational education is being praised and set on a pedestrian level; world apart from the 1986 National Policy on Science and Technology on educational system with the demand of our 1999 National Constitution on “…independent industrial capabilities” and self sustenance.

A French Sociologist named Le Bon Gustave (1841-1931) drew our attention on a serious note that “the balance members of any social group will see well ahead and will cautiously feel their way through the building up of solid but slowly changing body of tradition”. These, the university teaching Staff, have been trying to address from the successive Military Government to the current democratic dispensation under Chief Obasanjo. The University teaching staffs has been involved in struggles aimed at addressing the monumental neglect of the education sector (see appendix F in page 91). In effect, the faith of vocational education, which is cost effective, today reduced to mere paper work at secondary schools in Nigeria (NPE 1998 item 41)


Since independence in 1960, Nigeria indigenous government has made bold Steps to expand education at all sectors/levels, consequently there has been phenomenal increase in the number of institutions, and the growth in enrolment at all levels. By 1988, we did have about 67, 100 students in 114 Vocational schools and technical colleges and 53,000 in 29 polytechnics as against 3.6 million in the Secondary Schools and 16 million in the primary Schools. Enrolment in primary school rose 6.2 times, from 1958 – 1988. While by 1988 vocational education rose to 0.0034% that represent a rise of 0.5 times – source Federal Ministry of statistic. However, between 1986 and 1988 the introduction of vocational and technical subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria did increase (tentatively) growth of enrolments in vocational technical subjects. Today the weaknesses experienced in view of teachers, administrators and funding are alarming. From the above indications, one may draw conclusions that Vocational Education has only touched the tip of an iceberg and do not reflect its position on the Nation Policy of Education at secondary school level as required by the National constitution of Nigeria. Problems associated with the teaching of vocational technical education include those of related teaching equipment and inadequacy of staff.

The most acute problem is that of shortage of qualified teachers (Okorie 2001). Many qualified technical teachers after sometime join industry for better pay. Another problem experienced is that most (qualified) technical teachers lack adequate industrial experience, which is necessary for effective and efficient instruction.

Even though, the National Policy on education laid emphasis on functional education for all citizens of Nigeria at all levels, the requirements for a solid foundation towards proper development of the desired goals are not properly articulated. Unfortunately, vocational educators who should form the backbone for the provision of the much-desired functional education are factors responsible for the disappearance of most workshop/Laboratory equipment. Again, one other great problem confronting vocational education in the past and even now is the negative attitude given to it by society (for example the university administration here in Nsukka); as mentioned in Okorie (2001), Okoro (1999) and its modal position in NPE (1998). The essence of a conscious culture of which Vocational Education uphold; ‘reinforced concrete social and cultural cohesion’ which its debasement is minimal. These experiences recognize ‘Educational systems and their Districts’ which preamble integrates vocational education and culture (Okoro 1999 & Okorie 2000). This Good & Brophy (2000) and Sergiovanni (1994) supported that, “students learn best within cohesive and caring learning communities” where parents involvement, in-school activities are encouraged. These in support of those efforts by government for functional education at secondary school; also to the achievement of corporate financing of vocational technical education by the local people within the District (NPE 1998 items 1; 2 and 4d).

The degradation of discipline perpetuated in schools today by some Principals, Teachers and Security men – even with some officials of various Ministries of Education Headquarters – is that of mis-appropriation of these equipments purchased and supplied to schools in 1983 – 1986 throughout the Country. These have affected the methodology of direct teaching. More so, most of these equipments are un-installed in fact, most disappeared into oblivion and today we are back to where we started.

Vocational Education (which is something about school and work) and training takes many forms that is either apprenticeship, apprenticeship combine with school or some other forms of work base training. It is again from records and experience, we found out that in the past the bulk of all Vocational Technical Education financing, employers provided them. The cost of this education and training between the employers, who provided personnel, equipment and other facilities, and trainees who accepted low wages during the period of training.

Eventually, as the Government of Nigeria started having better view of economic need of vocational technical education as stated by Wale (1962) the question of financing modality between Federal Government, religious bodies, provincial government and industries were developed (how financing is shared?). That is between employers and workers, on one hand and government on the other. These arrangements sometimes linked with arguments about the distinction between general and vocational education (for example Government Technical College, Mallali Kaduna). The distinction grounded on the nature of the two curricular, which carry the implication that some education prepared students for the world of work and some does not. Too frequently (until now) those who have taken a course of study that is purely academic reap substantial financial rewards from their education. Thus, pointing to the paradoxical conclusion that ‘academic’ education has a greater value than ‘vocational’ education. The traditional distinction developed by educator, who had little or no idea about setting and implementing of vocational education for better economical endeavour to serve as bedrock for the country industrial work force. The effect today is that in most government schools surveyed, Vocational Education not properly funded. Even though today according to the previous Minister of Education Professor Babalola Borishade, that “Technical education has gulped N220bn in 3 years” as stated in Thisday newspaper (see appendix D in page 89). Of –course, anybody who care to follow the trend of science and technology with its vocational consequences in Nigeria will agree with Umar Saleh (2003:133) that, “ science and Technology has never suffered a blow like the one dealt to it by the present administration’s complete lack of interest in advancing education”.

Therefore if the previous Minister is more practicable on Financing, as in ‘investing’ quality education and re-education especially Technical Education, the product will tend to be more pro-active, creative, and hence productive. Confident in what they can do by themselves – by appropriate vocational technical education – with their quality training, they will be less prone to seeking for employment rather than being self-employed. However, it is the industries with the labour market that has its own way of appraising qualification and training needs (which are the greener ground) for the product of vocational technical education – not in government departments, institutions and civil service.

In1983-5, the Federal Government entered into soft loan agreement with Countries like Bulgaria, Hungary and Czechoslovakia for the production and supply of pre-vocational (industrial) workshop tools and equipment for all Junior Secondary Schools, and selected senior secondary schools in the country. Home Economic, Commercial etc. equipments locally purchased for selected senior secondary schools, commercial School, Teacher’s Colleges etc.

For the industrial tools and equipment, the supplies to State and Schools already been made. The installations of this equipment at varying degrees of success already been accomplished. Unfortunately, as discuss under problems in view of Schools, Teachers, and Society in page 14, today most of these equipment have suffer a lot of misuse at secondary school. In the polytechnic sector all the ten Polytechnics established by the federal Government have today been equipped fully also conforming to the required methods of assessment of students and trainees skills as required by the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE). The total responsibility of NBTE today is of 438 Technical and Commercial Institutions at the Post Primary levels and 102 tertiary institutions (New Nigeria Newspaper(NNN) April 2nd 2003:23) with exception of secondary schools, which are the responsibilities of federal and state’s ministries of education.

Since 1962, the Polytechnics and Universities (Nsukka which did pioneered technical education as (Okorie 2000 mentioned) are been encouraged to have departments of technical teachers education. Today, some of the Polytechnics and Universities are well equipped with better space provision, classrooms, workshops, etc, while some as an example Nsukka are yet to make ends meet. Even though today in the 21st century the government of Nigeria through the vice president Atiku Abubakar telling the world: “N250bn is expended in supporting Science and Technical school education …” (Thisday Newspaper reported see Appendix D in page 89). However, the previous Minister informed us: “Substantial part of the funding has been used to improve service condition of staff, improve facilities, and support curriculum revision efforts … to the need aspiration of the country”. Why can’t we go the whole hog to revise these displace priorities (and improve the standard of tertiary education generally) in terms of vocational consequences [Education], physical infrastructure: functional course contents in the secondary school, competent instructional personnel with good supporting staff and basic system of administration to fit the Nigeria society – not on borrowed ideas an un-attainable visions? These statements by the previous Minister and Vice President, the Universities Staff (2002 article 2) have debunked with facts on ground. In addition, the Nigeria Universities Staff (2003) further gave the actual case in issue by tabling its fact (see Appendix E and F in pages 90 and 91) of non-conformity on Industrial capability needs of education in Nigeria by Government for the development of citizenry.

A food for taught on past Government—in view Philipson and Professor J.R. recommendation in – 1946 being the first revenue allocation exercise in Nigeria based on principle of derivation tampered with the policy of even progress – 1952/53 on principles of derivation needs and national interest; which Sir Lovis Chick commission in 1953 re-enforced the principle of derivation, thus: - “if the Northern Region (Educational System) between 1955 to 1960 Could spend 35% of its educational total budget on vocational education alone i.e. 525,309.00. the other 65% went to capital Grants for (private/public) primary schools, secondary schools and teacher training”. One wonders what is happening in terms of financial accountability by the present government for the development and training of human resources in the education sector?!

                                                    1. Source “progress report on the Development Finance
                                                        Programme    of Northern region 1955 – 60 up to
                                                        31st March 1959”. Page 17 printed by the Government
                                                        printer Kaduna

                                                  2. Northern progress (1957) “Chapter VI Technical
                                                       Education progress 1946 – 56” Gaskiya cooperation.
                                                       D.I.S.N.N P.P 34 – 35.

Today reflecting into the records as Tawfiq (2003:9) presented: “in 1993, the [Babangida’s] military government had a negotiated agreement with Nigeria Universities Staff on funding [of education] condition of service and Autonomy [of Universities]. In 1996 Abacha’s military government (which proposed that there should be eight Universities in the country NNN 2003: 11of April 7) refused to renegotiate the agreement as required by the agreement itself and went further to abolish collective bargaining”. These attitudes of the government did not clear a better ground for funding of needed materials to train the much needed work force especially technical teachers (NNN, 2003: page 16, of May 21st and Dafe et al 1987:90 – 103).

The demand for Technical Teachers reached a high level that the introduction of Training Programme (TTTP) outside the Country was inevitable. The Nigerian government pioneered the TTTP in collaboration with the United States of America in 1980, through which about 1,540 Technical Teachers trained. Today, the training made locally in our Universities and Polytechnics in the Country (of which the author is among the pioneers in this University – Nsukka 1992 – 3 that of course, the Kaduna State Ministry of Education observed both better performance and testified to the University.

Each year, the learners of an educational system are constantly in flux. New students move into the system with skills and needs, which differ, from those of prior students. Observations have shown that, these new students learn differently and uniquely. The system must adjust (aligned time on task) and move to account for this different set of skills, needs, and learning styles in its new users. The system staff returns bring in new skills and competencies with new attitudes and personal agenda into the system. New theories and discoveries (in this our age) expand the potential service system (information technology). The theories need digested and incorporated. New instructional resources those are continually available to a system, consider. These theories tested, in its programs are accepted or rejected. As such, it is being suggested that the training of technical, science, and vocational teachers in methodology of measurement and evaluation should reflect the Criterion-References Evaluation if and only if, we want to move ahead and solve our societal problems in the use of latest changes in technology at secondary school.

Harbour-Peters (1999) and Okoro (1991) informed us that, Criterion-Reference Evaluation System are specific measures of student achievement of curricula goals and objectives. They also stated that to gather this kind of specific information about achievement, a new measurement instrument (the criterion-referenced test) incorporated into the model. They enormously agreed that the tests used for measurements produced in relationship to locally selected objectives to ensure their relevance to the programs of the school district: i.e. a pragmatic approach to curricula and syllabus drafting and implementation.

These emphases, under most conditions, the test production should also be a local operation so that changes can readily up dated and the number of tests needed provided on a timely basis putting together richness and flexibility. In addition, the need for a shift from homogeneous curriculum in the country to heterogeneous curriculum spaces in solving societal problems. Deduction from Harbour-Peters 1999 and Okoro 1991 in their text clearly shows in the model - criterion reference – a test production capability is included as an integral component. This means that educator, as actors should have gone through proper training before teaching/training, testing and evaluating the learner on specific work.

The criterion – reference tests is techniques that test items not typically written for high discrimination capability and mostly used in adoptive education to conform to changes. Rather, test items and tests developed to measure whether or not students can perform objectives (as found in science, Technology, and Mathematics subjects) to a specified level or criterion of achievement. They should contain only test items related directly to state desired of student outcome. Generally the results of criterion – referenced testing are reported in terms of whether students or group could meet the achievement criteria or not, which Vocational Teacher Education should relied on in training teachers: considering and potting in mind the norm–reference which is only and mostly used for discrimination purposes (Huberman, 1973).

In spite of the fact that Vocational Education does produce cultivated men and women who are responsible citizen, it is unfortunate that the earlier type of foreigners that Nigeria came into contact with, were not these cultivated men (but ruffians to the core), as observed earlier in the text. They had no specific interest in the Country rather than (selfish desire) propagating their self-importance. Still, in the British Empire (as we saw in evidence) the observed foreign administrators were grossly indiscipline and perpetuated nothing worthwhile to Vocational Education allocation for the Nigeria economy.

Despite all concerted effort, (since independence) by indigenous government of Nigeria to acquire space, materials, equipment and training for technical teachers (to teach appropriate vocational (technical) education in schools all over the Nation) this is yet to yield any positive result as seen in the text. The symbolic expression given, as reports were evidences showing how the school teaching methodology system was (which made matter worse): students were ill educated and parents dismayed about their children un-functional behavioural outcome within society.

The way society look on Vocational Education have discouraged both student and teachers, that today in almost all institutions, the 1998 National Policy on Education (NPE) are relegating, discouraging, and putting Vocational Education at a pedestal level. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a shift in literacy on Vocational Education nation wide [especially Kaduna State]: from its present position in the Nigerian Schools that is, NPE, Universities, and Institutions outside Universities. This is to reflect and conform to the 1999 Nigeria Constitution demand of “… Independent industrial capabilities”. As such, a different method of evaluation adopted – the Criterion – Reference, which is necessary for vocational education right from primary school to tertiary level.

With these findings in this chapter of the literature review and experience, the project is design to study and ascertain the proper development strategies for implementation of the principles and guidelines of vocational technical education in secondary schools. Especially as learner of any technical system are always in flux, with skills and needs different from previous students. The suggested allocation systems in technical education especially at secondary schools must always adjust to adopt new skill, competencies with new theories and discoveries. Of course which the criterion – reference system is design by most scholars, to cope with (changing skills within local and national needs). In addition, there is the need to adopt and infuse it usage along side the core {science} conventional subjects in vocational technical subjects in secondary school education.

This chapter describes the methodology employed in this study. It is presented under the following heading:
(a) Design of the study
(b) Area of the study
(c) Population of the study
(d) Sample and Sampling Technique
(e) Instrument of Data collection
(f) Validation of the Instrument
g) Reliability
(h) Administration of the Instrument
(i) Method of Data Analysis

The study is a descriptive survey research. It involves the use of questionnaire to obtain the opinions of school administrators and teachers (of vocational education) on the Development of principles and guide lines for the implementation of Vocational Technical Education in Kaduna state Nigerian secondary schools.

The study was carried out using selected government (state) secondary schools of Kaduna State. The Kaduna State government has about 207 secondary schools as at July 2001. The whole state has 12 educational districts known as Inspectorate Divisions (formally called zonal offices). In these inspectorates, the concentration of industries and commerce is not evenly spread. Some inspectorate divisions have many industries and companies with academic facilities up to tertiary levels; while some have few industries and companies with academic facilities only up to secondary school level. These inspectorate divisions are responsible to all public and private organization of education up to secondary level. Find below table 1 the public secondary schools in each inspectorate.

The population of this study which comprise some school administrators and teachers in Kaduna state totally 110 see ......

Since the population is small in all the districts, the 110 will constitute the sample for the study. These groups are chosen as they are directly involved in the provision of vocational education at secondary schools level.

The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher for this study.

The questions were intended to obtain information on the development of principle and guidelines for the implementation of vocational technical education in Kaduna state of Nigeria. The questionnaire has five sections (A-E). The first section is intended to obtain personal data. Section B has seven checklist items and section C to E have 42 items with each section having 14 questions that reflects the research question and topics raised in the literature review.

The response options provided are structured using checklist (yes/No) for section B section and five point’s likert scale for sections C to E.
Strongly Agree (SA) Agree (A)
Highly Acceptable System (HAS)  (5 point); Acceptable system (AS) (4Point)
Disagree (D) Strongly Disagree (DA)
Not sure if Acceptable system (NAS) (3 Point); Moderately Acceptable System (MAS)(2 Point);
Not Applicable (NA)  (1 Point)

Un – Acceptable system (UAS)

The instrument was content validated by the supervisor, commissioner Kaduna State Ministry of Education and other experts in the Department of Vocational Teacher Education of the University of Nigeria. They scrutinized the items and suggested appropriate corrections. The necessary corrections were made and has reduced the original 65 items to 49.

A pilot test of the 49 items of the questionnaire was carried out using a sample of forty (40) resource personnel on technical education from 23 states of Nigeria. The computed test yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.87 using the Cronbach Alpha (r) Reliability coefficient (because it is the best for the clusters of items developed).

The questionnaire was administered to administrators and vocational teachers in 110 secondary schools in Kaduna state. Since the government of Kaduna State has interest in the research, administrative processes nature used to administer and collect the instruments.
This helped to avoid wrong selection of vocational teachers and led to a percentage return of questionnaire.

Data arising from the study was analyzed using percentage for section B to determine the incident, presence, or absence of vocational education rudiments at secondary school level. In the remaining sections of the study employing five points likert scale and the analysis was done using the mean and standard deviation. The Likert scales were converted into numbers as follows.

[{Strongly Agree (SA)} {Highly Acceptable System (HAS)}] = 5 Points
[{Agreed (A)} {Acceptable System (AS)}] = 4 Points
[{Disagree (D)}{Not – sore if Acceptable System (HAS)}] = 3 points
[{Strongly Disagree (SD)}{Moderately Acceptable System (MAS)}] = 2 Points
[{Not Applicable (NA)}{Un – Acceptable System (UAS)}] = 1 Point

Analysis of variance ANOVA used to test the Null Hypothesis.
The Hypothesis tested was at 0.05 level of significance. Using the F- ratio statistics table, a calculated F- value greater than that of the table F- value will reject the null hypothesis.

The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used because the technique that is specifically designed for testing significance of sample mean between three or more groups (in this study six groups). In addition, the sub groups as samples identified independently - randomly selected.



.....Summary of Findings.

From the analysis of the collected data the following findings of the study made:-
1. Reasons for learning activities of vocational education in secondary school not reflecting the principles of vocational education are:
i. Workshops/Laboratory for these vocational subject are not present in schools;
ii. Lack of avail ability of teachers;
iii. The few teacher available the lack industrial experiences;
iv. Student hardly make visits relevant to their vocational subjects;
v. These vocational subjects are taught in schools that are far away from relevant industries or organization;
vi. Home Economic is the commonly taught subject and industrial Technical the least taught subject.

2. The teaching methodology that is acceptable for adaptations (in secondary schools) vocational technical education are:
i. Supply of sufficient instructional materials, and information from related subjects;
ii. Learning should be as exciting and stimulating;
iii. Teaching should reflect life skills in school and society.

The study in this cluster shows that the following teaching methodologies for vocational technical education in secondary schools are not recommended;
i. Where creating new experiences in learning are not made;
ii. Where Parent Teachers Association (PTA)provide found for teaching;
iii. Where a teacher is viewed as a final authority in accomplishing a difficult task;
iv. Where learning skills that relates to task relevant to daily and common experience.
3. Also accepted the district allocation of technical education in secondary schools for effective
    student performances should be base on
i. Technical education should promotes high level resourcefulness;
ii. Technical education should reflect local need;
iii. Good working condition and status in society for technical teachers;
iv. Students actively be involved in the policy and conditions which govern learning activity’s;
v. Teachers being implementer of selected emphasis by the curriculum developer, guide or the text book’s;
vi. Teachers selection of content ,methods and materials;
For the district allocation system for technical education, it should not be on:-
i. Where student should be provided a 1960’s technical education for the present 21st centaury;
ii. Where students are passive and accept subject prescribed through the teacher in accordance with established policy.

4 Evaluation modal for Technical education in secondary school should be;
i. Include relevant science subjects.
ii. Improve the life people lead and progress that benefit citizens;
iii. Evaluate skills, with knowledge and information from related subjects’, science.

The following evaluation modal for Technical Education is not recommended:
i. Where student experience and knowledge is rejected in favour of the teacher authority;
ii. Where multiple divergent interpretation of scientific knowledge and less of knowledge and information.

5. The study further shows that the following Development on Principle and Guideline will not enhance the Implementations of Technical Education at secondary schools where;-
i. 35% of the school budget is not spend on vocational education practices and application;
ii. Student involving in policy at juniors level which govern learning activity;
iii Student pleasing the authoritative knowledge of the teacher;
IV The value and validity of student’ experience, knowledge and assessment is not accepted.

Discussions of Finding
The findings of the study shows that the principles necessary for effective vocational education are not followed in Kaduna state as mentioned by Okoro (1999)I as principle of guidelines is not adequately articulated in secondary schools in Kaduna state . This in view of absents of workshop/Laboratories in schools, which provide the impetus of direct teachings.

Direct teaching according to Okoro (2000) and Okorie (2001) is most effective when it exhibits the main features for presentation of new content and skills, guided student practice, the use of feedback (evaluation) and independent practice by students. It is known that ‘assessments’ plays a major formative role in driving students’ learning appropriately, but what implications does this have for technical education, in secondary schools?

In addition, the lack of related organization/industry in close distance to schools: Affect the Co-operative learning which Grace (1994) Okoro (2000) and Okorie (2001) mentioned that, learning proceeds more effectively than usual when exchanges among related industry or organization and learners are frequent and specifically directed towards student’s problems and interests.

The situations in Kaduna state secondary schools lacking Workshop/Laboratory facilities and closeness of related industries or organization for vocational education taught in the schools, is a prove to Okoro (2000)observations, (living us with every reason to believe ) that “many students leave school ill prepared for the challenges of work and adulthood”. in effect, the financing of Technical Education mention in the National Policy of Education (NPE) 1998 section 111 looks good only in paper.

The study, which further reveal the lack of technical teacher with industrial experience further proved Okoro (2000) assertion of students are “unready and un motivated to carry out learning through out their lives”.

The finding of the study as in table 10&13 shows that the teaching methodology for adaptation in secondary schools on Technical Education; should be such that ‘learning to be exciting and stimulating which had a mean score above 3.50 with deviation of 0.60→0.62, 0.52→0.82 from the mean. These conform with the view of Okoro (1999) and Okorie (2000) where they mentioned, skills are important, but the learner’s monitoring and management of his or her own learning have primacy. It is further observed that the respondent of this study accept the teaching of life skills should reflect school and the local society with a mean of 4.59 &4.48 and deviation ranges of 0.48→2.10.On this the respondents are in agreement with Okorie (2000) on teaching approach for life skills in School and society, in effect transfer part of the direct teaching mentioned by Okoro(2000) which is a function of planning, allocating time and review to learners.

Grace (1994) stated that, the best teaching methodology is that where a teacher is able to be aware of what goes on in one’s mind (learner). During learning, being aware is a critical first step to effective independent learning, Therefore the idea of continuous supply of sufficient instructional materials to reflect information from related subjects which this study reveal is opted by the respondents with a total mean of 4.68 and 4.51 and deviation of sub-groups ranging from 0.42→1.39. The study however, reveal that parents should not provide found for teaching; because of the cost effectiveness of technical education (in must comment).This show that the respondent agree with Good & Brophy(2000) and Sergiovanni(1994) that parent involvements in schools should support government effort only. Where by for technical subject matter as Ma’aji (1984) stated to be learned systematically through mastery of each step is often base on careful sequencing, monitoring and control of the learning process within cohesive and caring learning communities in school activities

The result of the study as in table 12&15 have source of conflicting agreement between the groups of respondents in each class.

Thus, both school Administrators and vocational Teachers accept the idea that teachers should be active selector of subjects for teaching and implementers of curriculum. They differed in suggestions that “allocation of technical education should be base on teachers being active selector of content, methods, and material”. While vocational Teachers strongly believe, there is the need to “increase the numbers of technical teachers both in quality and quantity with appropriate working condition” as paramount in allocation of technical education.

However, school Administrators and vocational Teachers are in agreement with the cluster of ‘district allocation of Technical Education (VE) with a gross mean of 3.76 and 3.82 a gross deviation of 1.06 and 1.09.
The study as in Table 12 and 15 shows that evolutional modal in Technical Education that the respondent agree with in secondary school should improve the life people lead. With progress, that benefits citizens. This suggestion had a mean of 4.30 and 4.54 a deviation of 0.48→1.30, 0.51→0.63. Therefore, to achieve these, respondent agreed that the evaluation modal should be those that support the science subjects with a mean score of 4.45 and 4.34 with a deviation from the mean of 0.52→1.60, 0.59→1.36.How ever principals correlation effects on vocational Teachers responses on this cluster is the lowest at +0.650.

This support the argument raised by Harbour-Peters (1999) and Okoro(1991) that the test item used for measurement must be produced in relationship to locally selected objectives (this means that the secondary science core subjects form the locally selected subjects of a student area of studies ) with local need of that communities where such school is situated.

These will be a source of encouraging student to leave schools well prepared for the challenges of work and adulthood and they will be ready, highly motivated to carry on learning through out their lives.

The analysis of data collected, proved that the respondents accept, and agreed with the researcher on the outline, which some of these negative effects of Technical Education in secondary schools reduced and positive effects increased. The effects of Principals (non vocational) responses on the other five groups had a perfect positive linear correlation above + 0.880.

In effect the result of the research suggests that:-
• Students understanding of goals of their learning of vocational education is of primary importance;
• Students use learning rather than performance criteria in technical education;
• Developing student’s self assessment skills by developing better ways of allocation of technical subjects,
    on availability of related organization/industries near such school ;
• Students should know the criteria by which their learning, is assess and their ability with opportunities to asses their work. Since technical education is based on teaching/training of competency and manipulative skills there is the need for better vocational subjects at secondary education to tackle the high drop out rates, and used of industrial visitation/ placements for referrals.


Re-statement of problems
Education in Kaduna State has suffered many years of funding/financial cutbacks leading to teaching situation where facilities and motivation for innovation processes in vocational education at secondary school level are lacking. In effect, upsurge in factors and practices that have seriously threatened the stability and technical education credibility.

Okoro (2000) mentioned that many students leave school ill - prepared for the challenges of work and adulthood: unready and unmotivated to carry on learning through out their lives. As such, implementation and teaching of vocational technical subjects at secondary school, which is lacking especially its allocation at secondary schools, has deteriorated that there is the need to develop a better teaching and appropriate evaluation system in order to prepare the adolescents for the challenge of work and adulthood.

Therefore, development of better teaching methods should be a continuous process in our country. In addition, there is the need, in the new millennium, to provide adolescents with access to proper functional secondary education. It is with the views mentioned above that the present study on development of principle and guideline for the implementation of vocational technical education in Kaduna State of Nigeria undertaken for revival, repositioning and refocusing of its education sector. The objectivity of the study were;-

1 Identify the learning activities levels of vocational subjects in Secondary schools.
2 Determine the appropriate teaching methods for vocational technical subjects for adaptation in
    secondary schools.
3 Determine necessary systems for effective performance in Technical Education at secondary schools.
4 Ascertain the appropriate evaluation methods to be adopted in technical subjects.

Summary of procedure used
The study employed the survey research design. The data obtained for the study were through questionnaire with the help of research assistance at the 12 inspectorates division of Kaduna state Ministry of Education and the Ministry headquarter.

One hundred and ten copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondent identified in secondary schools for the study. The respondent comprised 19 principals, 10-vice principals and 15 Head of Departments, 31 teachers in senior classes, 22 teachers in Pre- vocational subjects and 13 Head of vocational subjects teaching vocational subjects directly. The data collected from the 110 respondents on the responses to the research questions were analyzed utilizing percentages, the arithmetic mean, and standard deviation. The Null Hypothesis (H01, H02, H03, and H04) were tested using chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significant.

Principal Finding
From the analysis of data collected, the following are principal finding from the study;
1 Workshops/Laboratory for vocational subjects are not usually present in schools
2 Lack of availability of teachers;
3 Even with the few teachers available they lack industrial experiences;
4 Students hardly make visits relevant to their vocational subjects;
5 Vocational subjects are taught in schools that are far away from relevant industries or organizations;
6 There is not sufficient supply of instructional materials.
7 Technical education should promotes high level resourcefulness;
8 Coursework should be designed to encourage reflection and the attribute of the teaching staff.
9 Technical education should reflect local need;
10 There should be good working condition and good status for technical teachers in the society; Students
      should be actively involved in the policy and conditions that govern learning activities.
11. A 1960’s technical education should not be provided to Students, in the present 21st centaury;
12. Technical education should improve the life people lead and benefit the citizens.
13. Useful vocational (course) subjects should reduce high dropout rates.

Implication of the study
The result of this study on teaching of vocational technical education shows that for the government of Kaduna state to prosper in its mission of vocational technical education implementation. It should improve on process of ‘allocation’ using appropriate facilities context and should re-conceptualize the ways in which students are asses’, both for intended and intentional, student learning activities in Technical Education which can lead students’ interest for continuous learning through out one’s life. Especially, Students understanding of goals on their performance criteria, they should also know the criteria by which their learning is assess and their ability with opportunities to also asses their work.

The implication of this study is for redirection of attention by the school Administrations and vocational Teachers with State executive (of Kaduna state) on Industrial Technical Education in secondary schools. Every student, whatever their circumstances require a technical education guideline that equips them for work and prepare them to succeed in the wider Nigeria economy in society. Not only for Kaduna state, developing student’s self-assessment skills, but the country should develop better ways of allocation of technical subjects, based on availability of related organization/industries near such school; all Nigerians must harness full commitment of teachers, local communities, for our vision and mission in industrial capabilities.

The finding of the study if implemented will help harness those area that reduces the negative effects which is making students leave school ill - prepared for the challenges of work and adulthood; unready and unmotivated to carry on learning through out their lives. These will increase those positive effects on the problem of ‘transition’ to employment, training, or further technical education privilege problems of up-skilfulness, re-skilfulness and labour market need of competent manipulative skills workers , generating a very utilitarian version of what it is to be young adult given/receiving functional education at Secondary School.

The following recommendations presented based on the finding of this study:
1 Allocation of vocational subjects in secondary schools should be base on availability of local resources
     and need of the immediate communities
2. Teaching of technical subjects with all aspects of life Long education/learning must reflect life
     skills in secondary school and local society.
3. Implementers/active selector of content, methods, and material by the curriculum developers are
    technical teachers existing in such secondary school that run technical subjects.
4. Applications of technical subjects need much support from the science core subjects to contribute
      to the academic knowledge base to cover an un-explored topic.
5. The need of more Technical teachers both in quantity/and quality.
6. Based on vocational Teachers perceptions, the technical education policies challenged to construct
     an appropriate ‘evolutional modal’ to bring about change.
7. The process of understanding “Vocational Education” and crafting‘teaching methodology’ is to
      construct appropriate competency, and its applicability to other related core science subjects.

Parents should never provide funds for teaching of Technical subjects instead the local industry or related organization near the Secondary School is harness for assistance while government provide the capital according to must comments.

Suggestion for Further Research
The findings of this study suggest the need for further research; Replication of the study in other states of Nigeria, on a large-scale research investigation using commonly accepted survey research methods would contribute information:

1 To ascertained the need of separating vocational Technical Education from conventional secondary education.
2 Vocational education policy conceptualizations, quantifying the effect of teacher experience in Nigeria.
3 Development Evidences for student acquiring achievement as process and principles in Industrial Technical Education in Nigeria.
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